All electric vehicles (EVs), also known as battery electric vehicle, use a battery pack to conserve the power of the engine. EV batteries are charged by connecting the vehicle to a power source. While electricity generation may contribute to air pollution, as per the U.S. The Environmental Protection Agency all electric vehicles are zero-emitting vehicles because they do not produce a direct exhaust.

Both heavy-duty and light-duty EVs are commercially available. EVs are generally more expensive than similar standard and hybrid vehicles, although some costs can be incurred by saving fuel, organizational tax credit, or state compensation.

Electric Vehicle parts

Key Parts of an Electric Vehicles

Battery (all-electric auxiliary):

In an electric drive vehicle, the auxiliary battery provides electricity to power vehicle accessories.

Charge port: 

The charge port allows the vehicle to connect to an external power supply in order to charge the traction battery pack.

DC/DC converter:

This device converts higher-voltage DC power from the traction battery pack to the lower-voltage DC power needed to run vehicle accessories and recharge the auxiliary battery.

Electric traction motor:

Using power from the traction battery pack, this motor drives the vehicle’s wheels. Some vehicles use motor generators that perform both the drive and regeneration functions.

Onboard charger:

Takes the incoming AC electricity supplied via the charge port and converts it to DC power for charging the traction battery. It also communicates with the charging equipment and monitors battery characteristics such as voltage, current, temperature, and state of charge while charging the pack.

Power electronics controller:

This unit manages the flow of electrical energy delivered by the traction battery, controlling the speed of the electric traction motor and the torque it produces.

Thermal system (cooling): 

This system maintains a proper operating temperature range of the engine, electric motor, power electronics, and other components.

Traction battery pack:

Stores electricity for use by the electric traction motor.

Transmission (electric):

The transmission transfers mechanical power from the electric traction motor to drive the wheels.

Ref: afdc.energy.gov

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