## Peak Voltage

Peak voltage is defined as the maximum value of voltage for any voltage waveform. The peak value measures from the reference axis (0) to the highest point of the waveform.

If we consider a sinusoidal waveform, the value of voltage increases from the reference axis and reaches the peak point of the waveform on the positive side. The difference between these two points gives us the positive peak voltage.

From the peak point, the voltage starts decreasing and reaches to reference axis. After that, it starts increasing on the negative side and reaches the peak point. This point is a negative peak point.

## Peak-to-Peak Voltage

Peak-to-peak voltage is a difference between positive peak voltage and negative peak voltage.

## Peak-to-Peak Voltage

Peak-to-peak voltage is a difference between positive peak voltage and negative peak voltage.

For a sinusoidal waveform, peak-to-peak voltage is shown below figure.

## Average Voltage

The method to find the average voltage is similar to the RMS voltage. The only difference is that the instantaneous values are not squared function and do not make square root.

The average value gives us the horizontal line. And the area above the horizontal line is the same as the area below the horizontal line. It is also known as means voltage.

## RMS Voltage Formula

RMS voltage can be calculated from peak value, peak-to-peak value, and average value.

For sinusoidal waveform below formulas are used to calculate the RMS voltage.

From peak voltage (VP);

From peak to peak voltage (VPP);

From average voltage (VAVG);

## Peak Voltage From RMS Voltage

To calculate the peak voltage from RMS voltage, we need to multiply RMS voltage by an approximate factor of 1.414.

#### Peak Voltage From Peak-to-Peak Voltage

The peak voltage is half of the peak-to-peak voltage.

#### Peak Voltage From Average Voltage

To calculate the peak voltage from average voltage, we need to multiply the average voltage by an approximate factor of 1.57.

## Peak-to-Peak Voltage From RMS Voltage

To calculate peak-to-peak voltage from RMS voltage, 2.8284 is the approximate multiplier factor.

#### Peak-to-Peak Voltage From Peak Voltage

Peak-to-peak voltage is twice of the peak voltage.

#### Peak-to-Peak Voltage From Average Voltage

To calculate peak-to-peak voltage from RMS voltage, 3.14 (π) is the approximate multiplier factor.

## Average Voltage From RMS Voltage

To calculate the average voltage from RMS voltage, 0.9 is the approximate multiplier factor.

#### Average Voltage From Peak Voltage

To calculate the average voltage from peak voltage, 0.637 is the approximate multiplier factor.

#### Average Voltage From Peak-to-Peak Voltage

To calculate the average voltage from peak-to-peak voltage, 0.318 is the approximate multiplier factor.