What is battery?
A battery, in a sense, can be any device that stores energy in the form of chemical energy. At the same time the battery converts electrical energy into chemical energy during charging and chemical energy into electrical energy during discharge.
The common use of the term “battery,” however, is limited to the use of an electric motor that converts chemical energy into electricity, using a galvanic cell. A galvanic cell is a simple tool that combines two electrodes (anode and cathode) with an electrolyte solution. Batteries include one or more galvanic cells.
How battery works?
Electrodes (two plates, each made of a different type of metal or metal compound) are inserted into the electrolyte solution.
The outer wires connect the electrodes to the Electric Load (lamp in this case). The metal in the anode (negative terminal) oxidize, releasing improperly charged electrons and well-charged metal ions.
Electrons travel through the wire (and the load of electricity) to the cathode (terminal). Electrons interact with objects in the cathode. This process of synthesis is called reduction, and it emits a badly charged metal-oxide ion
In contact with electrolyte, this ion causes the water molecule to split into hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions. A well-charged hydrogen ion mixes with a strong metal-oxide ion and becomes inert.
The negative hydroxide ion flows from the electrolyte to the anode where it combines with a well-charged metal ion, forming a water molecule and a metal-oxide molecule. In fact, iron ions from the anode will dissolve into electrolyte solution while hydrogen molecules from the electrolyte are deposited in the cathode.
If the anode is fully oxidized or the cathode is completely depleted, the chemical reaction will stop and the battery will be considered discharged.
Rechargeing the battery is usually a matter of using the outside power on all the plates to slow down the chemical process. However, some chemical reactions are systemic or impossible to reverse. Cells with irreversible reactions are generally known as primary cells, whereas cells with reversible reactions are known as secondary cells. It is dangerous to try to recharge basic cells.
The amount of voltage and current generated by a galvanic cell is directly related to the types of materials used in the electrodes and the electrolyte. The length of time a cell can produce that voltage and still depends on the number of active cells in the cell and the cell design.
Every metal or metal compound has an electromotive effect, which is the tendency of the metal to gain or lose electrons in relation to another material. Powerful electromotive computers will make fine anodes and those negatively charged A batteries will make fine cathodes. The greater the difference between the battery A electromotive power of the anode and cathode, the greater the amount of energy that can be produced by a cell.